Total and Partial Joint Replacement – Knee and Hip
Total joint replacement is usually reserved for patients who have severe arthritic conditions
What is total joint replacement?
Total joint replacement is a surgical procedure in which certain parts of an arthritic or damaged joint, such as a hip, knee or shoulder joint, are removed and replaced with a plastic or metal device called a prosthesis. The prosthesis is designed to enable the artificial joint to move just like a normal, healthy joint.
Hip replacement involves replacing the femur (head of the thigh bone) and the acetabulum (hip socket). Typically, the artificial ball with its stem is made of a strong metal, and the artificial socket is made of polyethylene (a durable, medical-grade plastic). In total knee replacement, the artificial joint is composed of metal and polyethylene, and it is used to replace the diseased joint. The prosthesis is anchored into place with bone cement or is covered with an advanced material that allows bone tissue to grow into it.
Total joint replacements of the hip, knee, and shoulder have been performed since the 1960s. Today, these procedures have been found to result in significant restoration of function and reduction of pain in 90% to 95% of patients. While the expected life of conventional joint replacements is difficult to estimate, it is not unlimited. Today’s patients can look forward to potentially benefiting from new advances that may increase the lifetime of the prostheses.